June 11, 2013

Foreign Political and Diplomatic Activities

Foreign Political and Diplomatic Activities

Part I: About Eritrea – History & Culture

Foreign Political and Diplomatic ActivitiesWritten by Million Eyob | In today’s world, political developments, international relations, wars, conflicts, treats, economic relations and cultural exchanges increasingly influence each other and no political phenomenon or movement should be seen in isolation. To properly asses the EPLF’s diplomatic activity during the struggle, therefore, it is necessary to analyze the international and regional political atmosphere under which it was undertaken.

Among the factors that influence political developments in the world, the deceive ones are the big powers. These powers in the first instance the United States and the Soviet Union were powerful and influential on account of their economic and military and hence their political right. Their power, however, does not derive solely from their own resources, but is buttressed by that of their allies and followers.

The world was generally presented as divided in to two camps representing different socio-economic systems. But this assessment doesn’t reflect the objective political situation of the world. The two camps were not divided on the basis principal and ideology, but on the basis of the struggle for spheres of influence.

The EPLF realized that the pervasive influence of the two super-powers, their opposition to the Eritrean people’s right to self-determination and their contention in the region were the causes not only of the suffering of Eritrean people but also of conflict and instability in the Horn of Africa. The EPLF, therefore, reputedly called on the Soviet Union to recognize the rights of the peoples of the Horn to decide independently their destinies and to use their influence to advance the causes of peace and instability in the region.

United States of America
The role and influence of the US in the world can be analyzed under three topics: economic, military and political.
Over the last 50 years the economic influence of the U.S has been on the rise. It is the leading country of monopoly capital and its economic dominance in the world on its industrial, technological and trade capacity.

American companies have increasingly dominated nationally or regionally based companies in other continents. Most independent companies in other industrial countries cannot compete with their American rival in size, capacity and capital investment and were therefore dominated by the American giants. Moreover, many other companies in the developed world are U.S subsidiaries, set up wholly or in part by American capital and technology.

In terms of man power too, the specialist, professionals as well as skilled and other workers of the developed countries directly or indirectly serve American industries, financial institutions and multi-national companies. American scientific, technological and industrial innovations are supplemented by similar break-throughand developments in other industrial countries.

Part II: About Eritrea – History & Culture

The U.S domination total or partial of the industrial development of Japan, the Far East, Western Europe, Canada and Australia that started in earnest after the Second World War has grown steadily over the past ten years spurred on by meteoric technological advances. There is an aspect of competition in the relation between the U.S and other capitalist countries. But this is secondary and does not constitute a significant factor obstructing U.S domination of the world capitalist system.

Compared with the developed countries, the level of industrial development and economic independence of the semi-developed countries of Asia, Latin America and Africa was very low and highly dominated by the U.S and the other developed nations. The industries of semi-developed countries remain an appendage of those of the U.S.A and U.S dominated developed countries due to the low level of education and technological development of the semi-developed countries and because the advanced industrial nations feel threatened by and therefore block their independent and technological growth.

The underdeveloped countries, of Asia, Africa and Latin America usually referred to as the “Third World” are countries which boast of no significant industrial development. Most are either friends or followers of America and its allies. In the world economy, they play the role of sources of raw materials and cheap labor, and that of consumers. As dependencies and backyards they serve to strengthen the U.S and other developed countries. The growth of American domination on the Third World was manifested in the ever deepening economic crisis that has be set “developing” countries.

The economic dominance of the U.S. and its partners created major problem. American technological progress brought about a high rate of unemployment in the developed countries and more poverty and crisis in the semi-developed and under-developed countries. More unemployment, poverty and economic crisis on a world-level bound to follow.
The American domination of world trade was a projection of its industrial dominance. Although attempts were made to regulate trade between the U.S. on the one hand, and Japan, Australia, the developed countries of the Far East, Western Europe and Canada on the other through tariff and trade agreement, financial and commercial might eventually tilt the balance in America’s favor. Therefore, American dominance and control of world trade was growing steadily.

The trade relationship between the semi-developed and the underdeveloped countries and the U.S.A and other developed nations was not based on equality and mutual benefit. Most of the former were debt-ridden. Wehave seen many countries burdened by huge debts and interest payments which they cannot meet. Moreover the general trend in international trade which boosted the growth and dominance of the American economy created friction between U.S.A and its allies.

Part III: About Eritrea – History & Culture

For the US, military superiority was essential for the protection of its strategic economic interests. It therefore, devoted huge resources industrial, financial and human to the production of weapons. The time has seen not only an increase in U.S nuclear capability but the developments of a weapon system in space (Star Wares), which was based on the use of the result of scientific and technological research in space for military purpose. These developments raised American military superiority and negotiating power.

American efforts to militarily strengthen client states have been growing. The consideration of the NATO alliance, the deployment of new nuclear weapons in Western Europe, the upgrading of the NATO members’ capacity to produce nuclear weapons, and the consolidation of NATO air, naval and ground conventional forces were indicators of American military thinking. The U.S. also attempting to strengthen regional alliances and individual client states through increased military aid to enable them, in the absence of direct American interference, to defend themselves and act as regional watchdogs. And in case this strategy fails, the U.S had its military bases and Rapid Deployment Forces which it has been strengthening for years. Moreover as the invasion of Grendada and the Libyan air raids show U.S disinclination to resort to direct military interference.

An aspect of U.S military strategy that has become more pronounced over the years was indirect military intervention, the support of opposition groups, where this do not exist, the creation, organization and financing of groups to fight Anti-American states. It supported to the contras in Nicaragua, UNITA in Angola and the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan in a manifestation of this policy, a policy which was supplemented by CIA espionage, sabotage, terrorism and assassination.

The American government claims to stand for liberty, brotherhood, equality, democracy and human rights in order to protect its worldwide interests. The policy of racial discrimination against Blacks and Native Americans, the violation of the social, economic and political rights of large sections of the population in Western Europe, the emergence of extreme right-wing and neo-fascist groups and the elimination of moderate and democratic forces by terror and sabotage were phenomena that give the lie to American claims.

The U.S. world political strategy can also be perceived from the type of regimes that are found in the semi-developed and under- developed Asian, African, and Latin American countries. Most of those allied with the U.S.A were military, monarchist and fascist dictatorships abhorred by their peoples. Moreover, those countries that establish true and democratic systems were subjected to US engineered coups, military pressure and economic sanctions. In the decades, the US has adopted a new foreign policy tactic.

When extremely notorious regimes are threatened by popular uprising, the Americans promptly before things go out of hand replace the unpopular leaders, leaving the regime intact. Moreover, the Americans goad client governments to carry out reforms to blunt popular opposition and ensure their survival.

It is the responsibility of international and regional organizations like the U.N. and the O.A.U. to prevent human rights violations and invasions and solve conflicts. But among other causes, American domination virtually paralyzed these bodies. The U.S. uses its international influence to prevent the cases of the oppressed from being raised in those bodies and to ensure their rejection if they are raised. It also pressures these international forums into passing resolutions that favor it. And when it does not suit its interest, the US by passes these bodies and resorts to force to solve the problem it faces. As a result bloody conflicts and injustices that have continued for a decade and more have not found proper solutions. The Eritrean case was one of many examples.

Million Eyob

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